Glossary - Wiki


Below is a community built glossary of words and terms used in the reptile hobby.

There are certain terms that have been used incorrectly for many years and have became a hard habit to break for some. Having a set standard that we can refer to during conversation will make it much easier for both the veterans and newcomers.

This is a long way from being finished, but it is a start.
Feel free to add anything you see missing, but before you do, at least Google it to make sure your wording and spelling are correct. Please add in alphabetical order.

If you see/hear any words being used that you don’t understand and can’t find them on the list, drop a comment with the word in question and we will get it added.

Use this Screenshot_20201014-202627_Chrome icon to edit

Thank you to @chesterhf @mblaney @nathan_e @erie-herps and @trnreptiles for helping me put together what we have so far.


1.1.1 sex description


1.0.0 = 1 male.
0.1.0 = 1 female.
0.0.1 = 1 unknown sex.


6.3.8 = 6 males, 3 females and 8 unknown sex animals.

100% het

Reptile has been confirmed to carry a recessive gene for a certain trait, usually through breeding

50% het

The animal has a 50% chance of being 100% het for a certain morph.
Example: If an animal is 50% het for piebald then each hatchling has a 50% chance of being het for piebald.
A 50% het is produced by breeding a heterozygous animal to an animal that does not have any form of the morph.

66% het

The animal has a 66% chance of being 100% het for that morph
Example: If an animal is 66% het for piebald then each hatchling has a 66% chance of being het for piebald.
A 66% het is produced by breeding two heterozygous animals to each other. 25% would be wild type, 50% would be heterozygous, and 25% would be homozygous for the morph. Since you can’t tell the difference between the wild type and heterozygous you can assume that about 66% (2/3) of the non-visual hatchling will be heterozygous.



deviating from the ordinary, normal, expected.


Of only a few days’ duration.


alteration of structure or function to suit a particular environment.


A component of snake venom that prevents coagulation (clotting) of the blood leading to prolonged bleeding.


an organism with absent or deficient melanin.
Lack of pigmentation present in the skin.


An allele is one of two or more versions of a gene. An individual inherits two alleles for each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are the same, the individual is homozygous for that gene. If the alleles are different, the individual is heterozygous. Either of the two paired genes affecting an inherited trait.


In a given population, more than two alternative forms of a gene affecting a single inherited trait.


Refers to an allele that is compatible with a particular trait located in the same locus. In short, the code that is used is different but located in the same spot in the gene. This makes different traits allelic. These traits can combine to form new morphs and can take quite a bit of trial and error to discover.

Can someone explain allelic genes to me?


Related populations occupying mutually exclusive but usually adjacent geographical areas.

Ambient Temperature

The temperature of the environment/air in the environment overall.


Lacking melanin (black pigment).


capable of living both in water and on land, typified by frogs, toads, and salamanders.


An allergic reaction that is severe and there is a possibility of death. Can be caused by venomous bites or stings.


The process through which an animal uses a prehensile tail to secure itself to objects.


To lack red pigments in the skin, also called anery.


The act of attributing human characteristics to a reptile.


Tailless amphibians- frogs, toads.

Apex predator

A predator that is at the top of the food chain, they have very few or no predators.

Aposematic Coloration

When an animal is toxic and has bright colors to warn predators of it. A common example is a poison dart frog.


When an animal lives in the water. Most reptiles that live in water are semi-aquatic (see semi-aquatic)


Lives off the ground, such as in trees.

Artificial Cover

Commonly used in field herping, artificial cover is a manmade object like boards or wood piles that is meant to provide cover for reptiles and/or amphibians.

Asexual Reproduction

An animal that is able to produce without a male. The offspring are identical clones to the parents. It’s similar to parthenogenetic except the offspring are identical to the parent. A common example is a mourning gecko.


African Soft Furs - a species of feeder rodent.


When an animal has a disease or virus but doesn’t show symptoms of it.


Amazon Tree Boa


Shedding/disconnecting body parts, usually in defence.


Lacks Red pigmentation, Yellow pigmentation or both.




Base Pair

Base pair describes the relationship between the building blocks on the strands of DNA.


When a reptile lays in a warm area to increase its body temperature

Batesian Mimicry

When a non-venomous snake mimics a venomous snake to avoid predation. A common example is a milk snake mimicking a coral snake


Boa Constrictor Constrictor


Boa Constrictor Imperator


Boa constrictor longicauda


Boa constrictor occidentalis


Nonaggressive, not of immediate threat. Often used to characterize neoplasia (cancer).


Typically referred to as an enclosure that has a self cleaning habitat. They typically are tanks with soil, plants, and microfauna like springtails and isopods.

Black Eyed Leucistic / BlkEL

White/Albino animal with black eyes.
Leucism is a term used to describe a wide variety of conditions which result in the partial loss of pigmentation in an animal—which causes white, pale, or patchy coloration of the skin, hair, feathers, scales or cuticles, but not the eyes.

Blue / In Blue

The stage of the shed process in which a snake’s eyes are completely cloudy.

Blue Eyed Leucistic / BluEL

White/Albino animal with blue eyes.
Leucism is a term used to describe a wide variety of conditions which result in the partial loss of pigmentation in an animal—which causes white, pale, or patchy coloration of the skin, hair, feathers, scales or cuticles, but not the eyes.


Ball Python (Python regius), also called the Royal Python.


A process to entice reluctant eaters by slicing open the body cavity of a pre-killed feeder rodent.


Brazilian Rainbow Boa.


Brumation is a term used for the hibernation-like state that cold-blooded animals utilize during very cold weather.


Blue tongued skink (Tiliqua)


Toxins found in the parotid gland of toxic toads


Cage Shield

A sheet of plastic or acrylic that is used to create a barrier between a person and an animal prone to striking to prevent the animal from striking or escaping. It is typically used when having the animal out for check-ups or when performing cage maintenance and not having to remove the snake.


A method for determining the fertility of eggs by placing a bright light against them to check for veins.

Canthus Rostralis

A distinctive bridge that runs along the side of the head from the item above the nostril, often seen in vipers.


See ‘Egg Tooth’


Upper portion of the shell of turtles/tortoises. Sometimes also used for invertebrates.


Meat eating animal.

CB / Captive Bred

A animal that was birthed in a captive setting. Can also mean captive born which is eggs taken from the wild and hatched in captivity.


Captive Bred & Born, used to reduce confusion between captive bred and captive born.


Ceramic heat emitter.


Turtle, terrapin, or tortoise.


An organism that contains two or more genetically distinct populations of cells that originate from different zygotes.


Pigment containing cells:

  • erythrophores (red)
  • iridophores (silvery-white)
  • melanophores (brown-black)
  • xanthophores (yellow)

A chromosome is an organized package of DNA found in the nucleus of the cell. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair so that offspring get half of their chromosomes from their mother and half from their father.


of longer than a brief duration.


Convention on International Trade on Endangered Species. They govern the international sale and trade of protected fauna.


In animal anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals, opening at the vent. All amphibians, reptiles and birds have this orifice, from which they excrete both urine and feces.


The term given to a group of eggs laid by a individual.


Codominance is a relationship between two versions of a gene. Individuals receive one version of a gene, called an allele, from each parent. If the alleles are different, the dominant allele usually will be expressed, while the effect of the other allele, called recessive, is masked. In codominance, however, neither allele is recessive and the phenotypes of both alleles are expressed.


The practice of keeping more than one reptile in the same enclosure. Not recommended for most reptile species


The largest family of snakes with 249 genera. Some popular snakes in this family are corn snakes, kingsnakes, garter snakes, and hognoses.


A characteristic of a species that is able to be safely housed with other members of the species. Can also refer to an enclosure that houses multiple animals.


The term “Complex” is a non scientific word coined by the early members of the reptile community to describe the connection between mutations that happen at the same gene.
See Allelic Morphs aka Complexes [Directory]


The top of the head.


Active at twilight


Crocodiles, Alligators, Caimans, & Gavials (Gharials)

Crossing Over

During the formation of egg and sperm cells, also known as meiosis, paired chromosomes from each parent align so that similar DNA sequences from the paired chromosomes cross over one another. Crossing over results in a shuffling of genetic material and is an important cause of the genetic variation seen among offspring.


Cyanophores are blue chromatophores and are responsible for the blue pigmentation in the skin.

Cryptosporidiosis / Crypto

The name of a stomach and small intestinal infection reptiles can get that is caused by one of a number of parasites in the genus Cryptosporidium, Crypto causes weight loss, appetite loss, diarrhea, and lack of digestion. Crypto usually results in death if untreated.



A tooth-bearing bone in the lower jaw reptiles


Referring to the skin


A creature that eats decaying organic matter.


Throat fan- vertical loose flap of skin seen in some lizards.


Desert Ghost. A ball python recessive trait. You can view them on the marketplace here.


Possessing 2 forms. Often used to describe sexual dimorphism, in which male and female characteristics markedly differ (e.g., size, color, etc.).


An animal that is unique, typically in patterns and/or colors, that is going to be bred or proved out to see if it is a new mutation/morph.


Awake and active during the day

DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is a laboratory technique used to determine the exact sequence of bases (A, C, G, and T) in a DNA molecule. The DNA base sequence carries the information a cell needs to assemble protein and RNA molecules. DNA sequence information is important to scientists investigating the functions of genes.


Dead on arrival, when an animal arrives dead, usually in transport.


Dominant refers to the relationship between two versions of a gene. Individuals receive two versions of each gene, known as alleles, from each parent. If the alleles of a gene are different, one allele will be expressed; it is the dominant gene.

As a example, Enchi (Dominant) X Piebald (Recessive) = Visual Enchi het Piebald.

Enchi het Piebald X Piebald = Visual Enchi visual Piebald


The area along the spine.


The upper sides.

Double Clutch

When an animal lays or gives birth twice in a season/year.

Double Het

When an animal is heterozygous for two morphs.
Example: Enchi double het piebald clown = Enchi het Piebald het Clown

Double Recessive

An animal that is homozygous for two recessive traits.
Example Clown Piebald

Dry bite

When a venomous animal bites but doesn’t inject venom.

Duvernoy’s gland

The venom producing gland(s) of rear fanged snakes, named after the French anatomist F. M. Duvernoy


Difficult or impaired skin shedding or molting.



An ectotherm is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or of quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature. Such organisms rely on environmental heat sources.


Parasites living on or outside the body.

Egg Tooth

A small tooth on the nose of many hatchling reptiles that is used to crack and open the shell.


Parasites living inside the body.


When a venomous animal injects its venom into a target.


This is when one gene is responsible for controlling whether a gene is expressed or not. This can contribute to one or more than one phenotype and requires a lot of breeding to unfold.

Example: Labs make a great example of Epistasis and have been well documented. Black Labs, Brown Labs, and Yellow Labs are excellent examples of how a gene allows other genes to be visually expressed or not. Here is a chart to see how you need the recessive gene which turns coat color ON/OFF, to be expressed to create a yellow lab. Black, Brown, and Yellow labs and how the Epistasis works for these phenotypes. The GREY highlighted cells show Black Labs, the YELLOW highlighted cells are yellow labs, and the BROWN ones are brown labs. We also use the CAPS B to designate the Dominant Black the lower-case b to designate Brown and C or c as the dominant or recessive yellow gene.


erythrophores are red chromatophores and are responsible for the red pigmentation in the skin.


Emerald Tree Boa


The hard covering of many arachnids, crustaceans, and insects that is often molted (regrown and replaced)



Filial Generation mapping -

The number of generations an animal can be traced from.
Example: The grandchildren of an imported snake would be F2. The children of that snake are F1 (first generation) and if those children had children they would be F2 (second generation).

The F1 generation refers to the first filial generation. Filial generations are the nomenclature given to subsequent sets of offspring from controlled or observed reproduction. The initial generation is given the letter “P” for parental generation. The first set of offspring from these parents is then known as the F1 generation. The F1 generation can reproduce to create the F2 generation, and so forth. Scientists use this designation to track groups of offspring as they observe the genetics of various generations.

False bottom

A layer (ie screen) that allows water to pass through but not substrate or any other large objects. This allows water to drain for a healthier macrofauna environment.


A large tooth that is typically hollow that is used to inject venom.

Field Herping

The process of looking for herps (reptiles & amphibians) in a wild environment, typically their native habitat.

Fired Up

When an animal has a change in pattern and/or color because of factors like excitement or stress.

Fixed Dominant

Fixed dominant means that the wild-type population has a single phenotype. In the reptile world, we call this the Normal morph. All other mutations have not survived through natural selection and only one morph has managed to survive and is dominant in the population. A Normal Ball Python is a great example as it is the Fixed Dominant morph found in the wild

Fixed Polymorphic

Fixed refers to when something in a population has reached a level of equilibrium, it is “fixed” in the population. This can be seen with Wolves or Rabbits having different color coats in the wild. As for Reptiles We have Spiny-Tail Iguanas, Leachianus, Gargoyle Geckos, etc. However, these animals still have genetic traits that are heritable and predictable. The reason this happens is that multiple forms work for the survivability of the species and have not been removed through natural selection.


Burrowing beneath the earth.

Founder effect

Lack of genetic variation caused by a population formed from a small number of individuals.


Freshly killed prey items.


Frozen Thawed. Frozen prey items that have been defrosted.


The product that forms from an insect colony that is made up of feces, carcasses, molted exoskeletons and/or other wastes.


An animal that eats only fruit.


The juvenile stage of mice and rats where fur is starting to develop.



The gene is the basic physical unit of inheritance. Genes are passed from parents to offspring and contain the information needed to specify traits.

Genes are arranged, one after another, on structures called chromosomes. A chromosome contains a single, long DNA molecule, only a portion of which corresponds to a single gene

A sequence of nucleotides that encodes for a gene product.


The genome is the entire set of genetic instructions found in a cell.


A genotype is an individual’s collection of genes. The term also can refer to the two alleles inherited for a particular gene. The genotype is expressed when the information encoded in the genes’ DNA is used to make protein and RNA molecules.


Earth eating


An opening to the trachea that is covered cartilage, it moves to the side and allows the snake to breathe when it’s throat is full of a large prey item. It also allows most snakes to hiss.


Refers to the accumulation of urate crystals in tissue sites.


A female that is bearing eggs or embryos.


Green Tree Python (Morelia viridis)


Heat Lamp

A ceramic bulb set up that is used with a thermostat to heat an enclosure.


The paired copulatory organ of a male snake or lizard.


A component of venom that damages or destroy red blood corpuscles


A component of snake venom that causes breakdown of blood vessels resulting in leakage of blood into the surrounding tissues


Vegetarian, preferring or requiring a diet of plant material.


Scientific Study of reptiles and amphibians.


The term to describe reptiles and amphibians.


The reptile version of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell


Heterozygous refers to having inherited different forms (or alleles) of a particular gene from each parent. A heterozygous genotype stands in contrast to a homozygous genotype, where an individual inherits identical forms of a particular gene from each parent.


A faux cave that is placed in the enclosure for a animal to conceal itself.


Offspring from a litter or clutch that are kept rather than sold, they are typically higher quality and used for future breeding.


Homozygous is a genetic condition where an individual inherits the same alleles for a particular gene from both parents.


In reference to a reptile that has venom potent enough to injure or kill a person.


Het Red Axanthic. A dominant trait in ball pythons, the super form is Red Axanthic. You can view them on the marketplace here.


Humidity is the concentration of water vapor present in the air.


The control and management of animal care.


A crossbred offspring of two separate species.


A device used to measure the humidity of a environment.


abnormally warm


An animal that lacks melanocytes; may be albinistic, xanthic, iridophoric, or erythric/erythrophoric


abnormally cold



A negative reaction caused by the treatment given.


Inclusion body disease.


A disease/condition of unknown cause.

Incomplete dominance

Incomplete dominance is when a dominant allele does not completely mask the effects of a recessive allele and the resulting phenotype is blend of both alleles.


Typically refers to the act of keeping an egg at the right temperature to allow it to hatch. However incubation can also refer to a disease or virus incubation which is the time when the disease/virus is in the animals body but the animal is not yet showing symptoms.


A device with a heater meant to incubate eggs at a stable temperature to allow them to hatch. An incubator is typically made up of an insulating container (old freezer, cooler, etc) and then heating elements are added to it to maintain the proper temperature.


An inherited trait is one that is genetically determined. Inherited traits are passed from parent to offspring according to the rules of Mendelian genetics.


An animal that feeds primarily on insects and invertebrate.

Invasive Species

An invasive species is a non-native species that spreads from the point of introduction and becomes abundant.


An animal that does not have a vertebral spine. Arachnids, Crustaceans, and Insects are all invertebrate.


Iridophores are a iridescent chromatophores and are responsible for the iridescence/reflective pigmentation in the skin.


Jacobson's gland

An organ in the roof of the mouth that collects and processes smells. Snakes use it by flicking their tongue and rubbing it on the organ.



A hinged, movable portion of the plastron; can be sexually dimorphic.


Kenyan Sand Boa (Gongylophis colubrinus)



The disks on the toe pads and feet of most geckos that hold microscopic hairs that is used to stick to surfaces.


The juvenile stage of many insects or newts or salamanders.


The sides of an animal between the dorsum and ventral; can be divided up between upper and lower lateral.


Lethal Dose 50%; the amount of a toxin required to kill 50% of a test population. It is used as an indicator of a toins overall toxicity or potency. The population is typically used on lab rodents. An example is 1.5 mg/kg. This means that for a 50 kg person it will take 75 mg of a toxin to cause a 50% chance of death.

Lethal Gene/Combo

A gene or combo that almost always results in a premature death of an offspring.


Leucophores are white chromatophores and are responsible for the white pigmentation in the skin.


A trait that reduces or absences pigments in the skin with the exception of the eyes. The effect is an all white snake with colored eyes.

Line Bred Trait

A trait (usually color and/or pattern) that is specifically bred to produce or enhance the trait.


When an animal gives live birth instead of laying eggs. A common example is a boa constrictor.


A specific area or region where an animal’s genetic ancestors originated or can be traced to. Different localities usually have distinct traits like color, size, or pattern.


The term given for when a male and female are in the physical act of reproduction


A locus is the specific physical location of a gene or other DNA sequence on a chromosome, like a genetic street address. The plural of locus is “loci”.


The area between the eye and the nostril.

Loreal pits

A depression in the loreal area that is the opening to an infrared detecting organ. It is present in all pit vipers.



Aggressive, often fatal. Often used to describe neoplasia (cancer).


Metabolic bone disease.


Mexican Black King.


The production of too many dark pigments.


A black-brown pigment cell.
Melanophores are black/brown chromatophores and are responsible for the black/brown pigmentation in the skin.

Mendelian Inheritance

Mendelian inheritance refers to patterns of inheritance that are characteristic of organisms that reproduce sexually. The Austrian monk Gregor Mendel performed thousands of crosses with garden peas at his monastery during the middle of the 19th century. Mendel explained his results by describing two laws of inheritance that introduced the idea of dominant and recessive genes.


A trait characterized by an excess of melanin. An example is black night leopard geckos.

Metabolic Bone Disease

A bone and/or muscle condition characterized by bone malformations and is usually the result of dietary, environmental, or nutritional deficiencies associated with poor husbandry. It is usually caused by a lack of calcium which can be caused by not having either a UV light and not having dusted insects.


Tinier eyes than normal




Trait caused or controlled by a single gene


The term used to describe the visual impact of a mutation.


An organism with two (or more) genetically distinct populations of cells that have arisen from the same zygote.


MorphMarket Reptile Community


Snake musk is a substance that is released by the cloaca. It is made out of bi-products of their digestive system. Most snakes use it when they feel threatened. It is similar to a skunk spraying.


A mutation is a change in a DNA sequence.



The area of the back of the neck



Natural selection

The evolutionary process by which organisms best suited for survival and reproductions are able to pass on their genes.


Tissue death and destruction, possibly caused by cytotoxic venom. May lead to amputation and limb loss.


A postmortem exam. While ‘necropsy’ can be used for both humans and animals, ‘autopsy’ can only be used for humans.




Awake at night.



Orange Dream. A dominant ball python trait. You can view on the marketplacehere.


Eats both plant matter and flesh.


An egg sac laid by invertebrates like roaches.




Referring to the eyes




Referring to ears


Egg-laying. Not the same as ‘ovoviviparous,’ see below.




Producing young by means of eggs which are hatched within the body of the parent.


When a mature egg is released from the ovaries. If it fuses with sperm the egg will start to develop and form an embryo which will grow and if kept in the right conditions, hatch.



Placing a male and female in a enclosure together in hopes of reproduction.


To feel or examine an animal for eggs, follicles, or babies.


A type of enclosure or vivarium which incorporates both terrestrial and aquatic areas and elements.


A term used to describe a snake that has contradictory markings to its genotype and predicted phenotype. An example would a BEL showing brown/black patches. The Paradox phenotype is usually caused by chimerism or mosaicism.

Parietal Eye

A photoreceptive median eye-like organ found in the tuatara and some lizards.


Reproduction by the development of an egg into an embryo without fertilization by a sperm cell- females producing female babies without a male. Seen in some Lacerta and Hemidactylus species.


Of very brief duration- minutes to hours.


Possible Heterozygous. When an animal may or may not be heterozygous or a given trait.


Set of observable traits and characteristics. This can include color, patterning, behavioral traits, size and more


The blind, hairless newborn stage of rats and mice; typically before 7 days of age.




Pigmentation refers to the coloring of the skin.


Bottom (ventral) portion of the shell of turtles, terrapins, and tortoises.


An animal that has toxins and spreads them when the victim touches or eats the animal causing the poison to spread to them.


A gene whose individual effect on a single phenotype is too small to be observed alone, but which act together with more than one gene to produce observable variations. This can be a bit on the controversial side but can explain why breeding for some traits is difficult. It is a term that we need to keep in mind when breeding and documenting as to not eliminate its potential behavior.


The term used to describe a trait relating to or determined by polygenes.
Polygenic Trait


In biology, polymorphism is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.


This is the foundation of all designer morphs that exist today. If an animal has more than one morph or comes in varying wild-type colors, that is polymorphism. Breaking down the term, Poly; more than one, morphism; morph, so we have a species that comes in varying colors but still belongs to the same genus.


A method of sexing baby snakes by everting their hemipenes (or lack thereof).

Power Feeding

The process of feeding larger prey and/or more frequent in an attempt to have the animal reach sexual maturity at an earlier age.

Prehensile Tail

Tail that can be used to for grabbing/wrapping.


A tool used to determine the sex of certain reptiles.


A component in snake venom that causes coagulation (clotting) of the blood. Procoagulant venoms eventually cause prolonged bleeding by using up all the clotting factor.

Punnett square

A diagram used to calculate the possible outcomes of breeding between two individuals



The procedure of isolating a new animal to prevent viruses that the new animal may have from infecting other animals.



A shelving unit for holding multiple reptiles.


Commonly called an ‘X-ray,’ an image obtained with x-ray irradiation


Recessive is a quality found in the relationship between two versions of a gene. Individuals receive one version of a gene, called an allele, from each parent. If the alleles are different, the dominant allele will be expressed, while the effect of the other allele, called recessive, is masked. In the case of a recessive genetic disorder, an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated allele in order for the mutation to be present.


An ectothermic vertebrate that typically has scaly skin and reproduces terrestrially.


Radiant Heat Panel


Respiratory infection.


Pertaining to nose/front of head


Really Useful Boxes. Brand if plastic boxes used by many in the hobby.





A bony ridge or plate that cover the body and serve as added protection, aid in movement and can vary in shape and size for other functions.


The practice of masking the scent of a feeder item with a normally preferred or more enticing item.


Flat scales or plates, usually on tummy


An animal that lives partly on land and partly in water.

Sex Chromosome

A sex chromosome is a type of chromosome that participates in sex determination.

Sexual Dimorphism

Any differences in size and/or appearance between genders of the same species.


The process of shedding or removing old skin. Can also refer to the physical shed skin of a reptile.


A form of movement used by some desert species of snakes where some segments of the body are raises and rolled while only two segments come into contact with the ground at any given moment.


A term for a tarantula or spider spiderling.


Infertile eggs.

Spot Cleaning

The practice of removing only waste (urates, feces, uneaten food) without replacing all of the substrate.


Remnants of the pelvic limb, can be found on alongside the cloaca. Seen in some species, e.g., boids.


When a animal lunges to either attack prey or defend itself .


A substrate is any material used on the floor of a enclosure. Soil, rocks, sand and aspen are examples of substrates.



The practice of grabbing and handling a reptile by the tail. Typically used for venomous or aggressive snakes.

Target Training

A behavior exercise that is used with many different animals (especially crocodilians and monitors) where the animal focuses on an object and a desired action is performed. It typically works when the animal taps the object with its nose and gets rewarded with a treat.


The branch of scientific study addressing the systematic classification of organisms.

Temp gun

Laser or infrared thermometer


An enclosure made of glass, screen, plastics, or another material used to house herps. They can be made in any size, shape, or style.


Terminology to describe an animal that lives mostly on land and the ground.


A defensive strategy whereby an animal “ plays dead“ to avoid predation.

Thermal Gradient

A range of temperatures that an animal is able to choose its preference within an environment.


The process by which a reptile or amphibian regulates its body temperature by selecting its prefered temperature. Done by using a thermal gradient.


A device that controls the heating elements of the enclosure.


A device used to measure the temperature of a environment.


A form of albinism where the enzyme tyrosinase is absent, and has absent or low amounts of melanin.


A chemical compound produced by an animal meant to harm or stun the victim for defense or hunting.


A form of albinism were the enzyme tyrosinase and some darker melanin are both present.

Trap Box

A sealed, escape proof box with at least one opening and closing that is used to safely transport venomous reptiles.



A form of urine made up of a suspension of uric acid salts and water, and can be seen as the white or whitish-yellow semi-solid portion of the feces.


Primary nitrogenous waste product is uric acid, not urea.

Urticating Hairs

The irritating hairs found on the limbs and abdomen of tarantulas. When the tarantula feels threatened it will throw them and the barbed hairs will cause itchiness and redness.


Under tank heater.


Type of ultraviolet radiation produced naturally by the sun. Reptiles can see colors produced by this wavelength of light, but humans can’t. Seems to provide mental health benefits for diurnal reptiles as well as stimulate appetite.


Type of ultraviolet radiation produced naturally by the sun. Triggers a physiological process which helps both humans and reptiles make their own vitamin D3, which in turn helps them metabolize calcium. Lack of UVB can lead to MBD in many diurnal reptiles.


Vago-vagal reflex

A handling technique that involves gently covering the eyes of a lizard and calming it into a trace-like state.


Toxins released/produced by a animal that is administered by the animal biting and injecting venom into the victim.


See ‘Cloaca’.


An animal that possesses a vertebral column or backbone. All amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, and fish are vertebrates.


A body part that is no longer used, which has become reduced in size due to evolution.


A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism


A cage or container for keeping reptiles and amphibians.


Live birth

Vocal Sac

An inflatable sac or pouch on the throat that is used for calling by male frogs and toads.

Vomeronasal Organ

Pheromone and scent detector, adjacent to roof of the mouth.


Wild Caught

A animal that was brought from a natural wild habitat into a captive setting.

Wild Type

The naturally occurring coloration and pattern of a species.



Used to describe an excess of yellow pigment


Xanthophores are yellow chromatophores and are responsible for the yellow pigmentation in the skin.



Yellow Belly. A dominant ball python trait. You can view them on the marketplace here.



A fertilized egg cell that results from the union of a female gamete (egg, or ovum) with a male gamete (sperm).



Yes I Bump it and take the risks. Check this out, its so helpful. I have learned so much from it.
In my stupid opinion i don’t know why its not pined.

Also we have UVA a and B but can we add UVA C? Maybe not needed for Lizards/snakes but for reptile photography?.